Citations and references for our Frequently Asked Questions:


1. Tscharntke, T., A.M. Klein, A. Kruess, A., I. Steffan‐Dewenter and C. Thies. 2005. Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity–ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters, 8(8): 857-874.

2. Johnson, R. M., M. D. Ellis, C. A. Mullin, and M. Frazier. 2010. Pesticides and honey bee toxicity–USA. Apidologie 41(3):312–331.

3. Mullin, C. A., M. Frazier, J. L. Frazier, S. Ashcraft, R. Simonds, and J. S. Pettis. 2010. High levels of miticides and agrochemicals in North American apiaries: implications for honey bee health. PLoS One 5(3):e9754.

4. Mattila, H. R., G. W. Otis. 2006. Influence of pollen diet in spring on development of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies. Journal of Economic Entomology 99:604–613.

5. Steffan-Dewenter, I., and T. Tscharntke. 1999. Effects of habitat isolation on pollinator communities and seed set. Oecologia 121:432–440.

6. Steffan-Dewenter, I., U. Munzenberg, C. Burger, C. Thies, and T. Tscharntke. 2002. Scale-dependent effects of landscape context on three pollinator guilds. Ecology 83:1421–1432

7. Decourtye, A., E. Mader, and N. Desneux. 2010. Landscape enhancement of floral resources for honey bees in agro-ecosystems. Apidologie 41(3):264–277.

8. Hogg, B. N., R. L. Bugg, and K. M. Daane. 2011. Attractiveness of common insectary and harvestable floral resources to beneficial insects. Biological Control 56(1):76–84.

9. Decourtye, A., J. Devillers, E. Genecque, K. Le Menach, H. Budzinski, S. Cluzeau, and M. H. Pham-Delegue. 2005. Comparative sublethal toxicity of nine pesticides on olfactory learning performances of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48(2):242–250.


10. Duan, J.J., M. Marvier, J. Huesing, G. Dively  and Z.Y.Huang, 2008. A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS One, 3(1):e1415.

11. Morandin, L. A., and M. L. Winston. 2005. Wild bee abundance and seed production in conventional, organic, and genetically modified canola.Ecological Applications 15(3):871–881.

12. Benbrook, C. M. 2012. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US—the first sixteen years. Environmental Sciences Europe 24(1):24.

13. Perry, E. D., F. Ciliberto, D. A. Hennessy, and G. Moschini. 2016. Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in US maize and soybeans.Science Advances 2(8):e1600850.

14. Nicholls, C. I., and M. A. Altieri. 2013. Plant biodiversity enhances bees and other insect pollinators in agroecosystems. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33(2):257–274.

15. Biddinger, D. J., J. L. Robertson, C. Mullin, J. Frazier, S. A. Ashcraft, E. G. Rajotte, N. K. Joshi, and M. Vaughan. 2013. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski). PLoS One 8(9):e72587.

16. Johnson, R. M., L. Dahlgren, B. D. Siegfried, and M. D. Ellis. 2013. Acaricide, Fungicide and Drug Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera). PLoS One 8:e54092.

17. Ramoutar, D., R. S. Cowles, E. Requintina, and S. R. Alm. 2010. Synergism between Demethylation Inhibitor fungicides or Gibberellin Inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a byrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Journal of Economic Entomology 103(5):1810–1814.

18. Wachendoorff-Neumann, U. et al. 2012. Synergistic mixture of trifloxystrobin and imidacloprid. Google patents United States Bayer CropScience AG.

19. Bernauer, O., H. Gaines-Day, and S. Steffan. 2015. Colonies of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) produce fewer workers, less bee biomass, and have smaller mother queens following fungicide exposure. Insects 6(2):478–488. doi:10.3390/insects6020478

20. Biddinger, D. J., J. L. Robertson, C. Mullin, J. Frazier, S. A. Ashcraft, E. G. Rajotte, N. K. Joshi, and M. Vaughan. 2013. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski). PLoS One 8(9):e72587.

21. Iwasa, T., N. Motoyama, J. T. Ambrose, and R. M. Roe. 2004. Mechanism for the differential toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Crop Protection 23:371–378.

22. Park, M. G., E. J. Blitzer, J. Gibbs J. E. Losey, and B. N. Danforth. 2015. Negative effects of pesticides on wild bee communities can be buffered by landscape context. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 282:20150299.

23. Pilling, E. D., K. A. C. Bromley-Challenor, C. H. Walker, and P. C. Jepson. 1995. Mechanism of synergism between the pyrethroid insecticide λ-cyhalothrin and the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 51:1–11.

24. Pilling, E. D., and P. C. Jepson. 1993. Synergism between EBI fungicides and a pyrethroid insecticide in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Pest Management Science 39:293–297.

25. Sanchez-Bayo, F., D. Goulson, F. Pennacchio, F. Nazzi, K. Goka, and N. Desneux. 2016. Are bee diseases linked to pesticides?—A brief review. Environment International 89–90:7–11.

26. Schmuck, R., T. Stadler, and H.-W. Schmidt. 2003. Field relevance of a synergistic effect observed in the laboratory between an EBI fungicide and a chloronicotinyl insecticide in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera). Pest Management Science 59:279–286.

27. Traynor, K. S., J. S. Pettis, D. R. Tarpy, C. A. Mullin, J. L. Frazier, M. Frazier, and D. vanEngelsdorp. 2016. In-hive pesticide exposome: assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States. Scientific Reports 6:33207. doi:10.1038/srep33207.

28. Hopwood, J., A. Code, M. Vaughan, D. Biddinger, M. Shepherd, S.H. Black, E. Lee-Mader, and C. Mazzacanno. 2016. How Neonicotinoids are Killing Bees: The Science Behind the Role these Insecticides Play in Harming Bees. 2nd Ed. 76 pp. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.

29. Johnson, R.M., 2015. Honey bee toxicology. Annual Review of Entomology, 60:415-434.